The boundary between arctic tundra and subarctic forest is the largest vegetation transition (or ‘ecotone’) on the planet stretching > 13.000 km around the northern hemisphere. A warmer climate is expected to cause both an expansion of shrubs and trees into tundra areas, and intensified forest pest outbreaks, making it challenging to predict the future of the ecotone.


Tundra-forest ecotone dynamics in a changing climate

Higher temperatures are beneficial for the growth of trees and tall shrubs, and dynamic climate-vegetation models predict that the northern distribution limits of woody vegetation types will change dramatically in the near future. Encroachment of shrubs and trees into tundra areas will alter the surface reflectance and hence have implications for climate feedbacks. Encroachment will further facilitate range expansions of boreal species such as the red fox into tundra areas, resulting in increased pressure on the critically endangered arctic fox. Outbreaks by insect pests are intensified by a milder climate, and in Varanger, moth outbreaks have resulted in historically unprecedented levels of forest mortality during the last decade. The regeneration of the forest after such outbreaks is strongly dependent on the browsing pressure from mammalian herbivores. It is therefore necessary to monitor biotic drivers of ecotone dynamics, in the form of ungulates and moth, in order to understand the indirect as well as the direct effects of climate change on the tundra-forest ecotone.

Moth outbreaks are strongly cyclic with peaks approximately every decade. Outbreaks in Finnmark have historically been caused by the autumnal moth, but have been intensified by the expansion of the winter moth into the region. The long time series above (panel A) is from Troms County where moth monitoring has been in place since 1999. Moth monitoring in Finnmark County (Panel B) was initiated in 2015 as part of COAT.


Expected climate impact

Climate change is expected to lead to warmer and longer growing seasons in the Arctic, and improved growing conditions for many woody species. The expected result is tree line advance and shrub encroachment into tundra areas. Such encroachment will be modified locally by herbivores such as reindeer and rodents, but even more so by insect outbreaks. Warmer springs and milder winters will be beneficial for the growth and survival of insect pests, and climatically intensified insect outbreaks are already causing widespread vegetation changes and forest mortality in the subarctic birch forest of Fennoscandia all the way to the low arctic tree line in Varanger. 

Expected direct and indirect effects of climate change on the tundra-forest ecotone in Varanger. The direct effect of climate promoting woody vegetation growth and encroachment, and the indirect effect acting via intensified defoliator outbreaks and forest mortality, are expected to be the two strongest pathways. We expect strong interactions in the effects of ungulates and moth outbreaks as drivers of ecotone dynamics. Note that there is a strong difference in the rate of change according to the two pathways. While insect outbreaks may cause widespread forest death in the course of a few years, temperature-mediated encroachment of shrubs and trees into tundra areas is a slow process acting on a scale of decades.


Management relevance

  • Ungulate (reindeer, moose, sheep) grazing and browsing can counteract the climate driven encroachment of trees and shrubs into tundra regions. At the same time, it can prevent the natural regeneration of forests after insect outbreaks. Information on the effects of ungulate grazing on woody vegetation growth under a range of circumstances is needed for management of both forest resources and ungulate densities.
  • Salvage logging of forests may be an effective management tool for stimulating new growth in forest after insect outbreaks, but the benefits of logging may be highly variable depending on local conditions. Documenting the effects of salvage logging in natural birch forests subject to moth outbreaks will hence permit forest managers to make more efficient use of salvage logging as a management tool in the future.


Monitoring methods

Moth outbreaks: Annual field estimates of moth larval abundances in 4 lowland transects in Varanger since 2015. This will be expanded to also cover elevational gradients from lowland to tree line in the future. Annual remote sensing based mapping of forest canopy loss since 2000. Citizen science mapping campaigns of the invasive moth species scarce umber moth (Agriopis aurantiaria) in autumn since 2017.

Forest health and regeneration: Experimental salvage logging since 2011 to document logging effects on forest regeneration. Experimental exclusion of ungulates and rodents from moth damaged forest since 2011 to document herbivory effects on regeneration. Regional scale surveys every 5 years to document forest health and succession following moth outbreaks.

Ecotone dynamics: Surveys of tree line structure, tree age and recruitment events under different grazing and climatic regimes.

Ecosystem effects of moth outbreaks: Abundance of mammalian herbivores based on pellet counts (rodents, ungulates), camera traps and GPS/satellite tags (ungulates). Flight intercept trapping of deadwood associated beetles in damaged and undamaged forest. Manual point counts and acoustic surveys of bird communities in damaged and undamaged forest. 

Dead forest, Jakob Iglhaut

Dead forest in Varanger. Photo: Jakob Iglhaut

Larvae of the species winter moth (Operopthera brumata). This species has expanded its range all the way to the arctic tree line in recent decades. Photo: Moritz Klinghardt


Larvae of the species autumnal moth (left) and winter moth (right). Photo: Jon Aars


Reindeer in dead birch forest. Photo: Moritz Klinghardt


During an outbreak, the forest floor is fertilized by larvae feces and dead larvae. This stimulates a rapid growth, and sometimes complete dominance, of grasses, in particular wavy hairgrass (Avenelle flexuosa) seen flowering here. Photo: Jane Uhd Jepsen

Module members

Module leader
Researcher,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
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Researcher, UiT - Arctic university of Norway
Professor, UiT - Arctic university of Norway
Professor, UiT - Arctic university of Norway
Professor, UiT - Arctic university of Norway
PhD student, UiT - Arctic university of Norway
Researcher, UiT - Arctic university of Norway
Professor, UiT - Arctic university of Norway


Selected papers

Vindstad, O.P.L., Jepsen, J.U., Yoccoz, N.G., Bjørnstad, O.N., Mesquita, M.D.S., & Ims, R.A.
Spatial synchrony in sub-arctic geometrid moth outbreaks reflects dispersal in larval and adult life cycle stages
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12959. 2019. Journal of Animal Ecology
Vindstad, O.P.L., Jepsen, J.U., Ek, M., Pepi, A. & Ims, R.A.
Can novel pest outbreaks drive ecosystem transitions in northern-boreal birch forest?
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.13093. 2018. Journal of Ecology
Vindstad, O.P.L., Jepsen, J.U., Klinghardt, M., Ek, M. & Ims, R.A.
Salvage logging of mountain birch after geometrid outbreaks: ecological context determines management outcomes
2017. Forest Ecology and Management 405: 81-91.
Vindstad, O.P.L., Jepsen, J.U. & Ims, R.A.
Resistance of a sub-arctic bird community to severe forest damage caused by geometrid moth outbreaks
2015. . European Journal of Forest Research 134 (4): 725-736.
Biuw, M., Jepsen J.U., Cohen, J., Markkola, A., Aikio, S., Ahonen, S., Wäli, P.R., Tejesvi, M., Vindstad, O.P.L., Niemelä, P. and Ims, R.A.
Long-term impacts of contrasting management of large ungulates in the arctic tundra-forest ecotone: Ecosystem structure and climate feedback
2014. Ecosystems 17: 890-905, DOI: 10.1007/s10021-014-9767-3
Jepsen, J.U., Biuw, M., Ims, R.A., Kapari, L., Schott, T., Vindstad, O.P.L., Hagen, S.B.
Ecosystem impacts of a range expanding forest defoliator at the forest-tundra ecotone
2013. Ecosystems 16: 561-575.
Jepsen, J.U., Kapari, L., Hagen, S.B., Schott, T., Vindstad, O.P.L., Nilssen, A.C. & Ims, R.A.
Rapid northwards expansion of a forest insect pest attributed to spring phenology matching with sub-arctic birch
2011. Global Change Biology 17: 2071-2083.